National Green Hydrogen mission (Detailed Explanation)

“Our effort is to work for inclusive, resilient, equitable, and sustainable energy for all”

– Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi at G20 Energy Minister’s meet.

National green hydrogen mission

What is National Green Hydrogen Mission

In a significant move towards sustainable energy, the Union Government of India has approved the ambitious National Green Hydrogen Mission with an investment of Rs 19,744 crore. The mission aims to position India as a global hub for the production, usage, and export of green hydrogen, a clean and eco-friendly alternative to traditional hydrogen sources. Green hydrogen is produced through the process of electrolysis, using renewable energy sources like solar and wind power, making it an attractive solution for a low-carbon future.

What is the core objective of the National Green Hydrogen Mission?

The core objective of the National Green Hydrogen Mission is to encourage the commercial production of green hydrogen, which in turn will make India a net exporter of this fuel. The mission will facilitate various activities such as demand creation, green hydrogen production, utilization, and export. It includes two significant sub-schemes: the Strategic Interventions for Green Hydrogen Transition (SIGHT) Programme and the establishment of Green Hydrogen Hubs in states and regions with the capacity for large-scale hydrogen production and utilization.
National green hydrogen mission


What is Green Hydrogen?

When hydrogen is generated using electrolysis powered by renewable resources, that hydrogen is known as green hydrogen. Also, we can say that hydrogen produced from renewable resources is known as green hydrogen. It also causes very less carbon emissions.
Green hydrogen stands out as one of the cleanest and most promising sources of energy. Unlike conventional hydrogen produced from fossil fuels like coal, green hydrogen is generated through the process of electrolysis, which splits water into oxygen and hydrogen using electricity from renewable sources like solar and wind power. The “green” label refers to the environmentally friendly nature of the production process.
National green hydrogen mission


Why Hydrogen as a fuel?

  • Most common element in nature.
  • Clean Molecule
  • Exists only in combination with other element.
  • Formed by spilliting water through an electrical process called electrolysis, using a device called electrolyser.
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Basic Comparison between Coal and Green Hydrogen
SR. NO. Basis Coal Green Hydrogen
1 Fuel Type Coal Green Hydrogen
2 Emission High Zero-emission
3 Availability Abundant Renewable
4 Environmental Impact Polluting Environment-friendly
5 Energy Density High Lower
6 Storage Requires Special Storage Can Be Stored Easily
7 Transportation Challenging Easier
8 Conversion Efficiency Lower Higher
9 Cost Relatively Cheap Costly
10 Renewable Resource No Yes

Types of Hydrogen

As we are discussing here about Green Hydrogen, but there are multiple types of hydrogen which are based on the process of its development as well as the type of source for its production.
Green Hydrogen Mission Logo


Here in the below table you can see different types of hydrogen, their process of production & source: 
SR. NO. Types of Hydrogen Process Source
1. Grey Hydrogen Steam Reforming Natural Gas
2. Blue Hydrogen Steam Reforming + Carbon Capture Natural Gas
3. Green Hydrogen Electrolysis Renewable Energies
4. Black Hydrogen Gassification Coal
5. Pink Hydrogen Electrolysis Nuclear Energy
6. Turquoise Hydrogen Pyrolysis Natural Gas
7. Yellow Hydrogen Electrolysis Solar Energy

National Green Hydrogen Mission target for 2030?

The overall target is to reduce the carbon emissions to 0 or very less. Here you can see some core outcomes by 2030 for this mission.
  1. Government is targeting to develope the capacity to produce at least 5 million metric tonnes of green hydrogen each year. Alongside this, we plan to add approximately 125 gigawatts of renewable energy capacity to support the production process.
  2. Rupees 8 Lakh Crore in total investments.
  3. Creation of 6 Lakh+ jobs.
  4. Cummulative reduction in fossil fuel imports over Rupees 1 Lakh Crore.
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Achieving the Mission’s Objectives:
The National Green Hydrogen Mission sets forth ambitious goals that India aims to achieve by 2030. These goals include developing a green hydrogen production capacity of at least 5 Million Metric Tonnes per annum and adding approximately 125 GW of renewable energy capacity. This endeavor is projected to attract investments totaling over Rs 8 lakh crore and create an estimated six lakh jobs. Furthermore, it will substantially reduce India’s dependence on imported fossil fuels and result in a cumulative reduction of nearly 50 MT of greenhouse gas emissions annually.
Benefits of National Green Hydrogen Mission:
Low Emissions: Green hydrogen’s production involves no carbon emissions, making it an essential tool in combating climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Versatility: Green hydrogen can be utilized across various sectors, including transportation, industrial applications, power generation, and energy storage, providing a versatile and adaptable energy solution.
National Green Hydrogen Mission


Energy Security: By developing its green hydrogen capacity, India can ensure a more secure and self-reliant energy future, reducing its dependence on fossil fuel imports.
Global Demand: As countries around the world focus on green technologies and sustainability, the demand for green hydrogen is expected to rise, offering potential export opportunities for India.
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Significance of the National Green Hydrogen Mission:
The mission’s implementation will have several far-reaching benefits for India’s energy landscape and the overall economy:
Decarbonization of Industrial, Mobility, and Energy Sectors: Green hydrogen will play a pivotal role in decarbonizing energy-intensive industries, transportation, and power generation. It will significantly contribute to reducing carbon emissions and mitigating climate change.
Reduced Dependence on Imported Fossil Fuels: As India develops its green hydrogen capacity, it will gradually reduce its reliance on imported fossil fuels, enhancing energy security and reducing foreign exchange outflows.
Indigenous Manufacturing Capabilities: The mission’s focus on domestic manufacturing of electrolysers and other green hydrogen-related technologies will boost India’s self-reliance in this critical sector.
Employment Opportunities: With its extensive investment and development plans, the mission is expected to create substantial employment opportunities across various sectors.
Technological Advancements: The National Green Hydrogen Mission will foster the development of cutting-edge technologies, such as efficient fuel cells, further enhancing India’s technological prowess on the global stage.
Major Challenges in Green Hydrogen Mission:
While the National Green Hydrogen Mission presents an encouraging vision for a sustainable energy future, it also faces certain challenges that need to be addressed:
Nascent Stage of Global Green Hydrogen Development:Green hydrogen technology is still in its early stages worldwide, and India needs to build the necessary infrastructure to fully execute the intermediate steps involved in the green hydrogen value chain.
Economic Sustainability: One of the significant hurdles for commercial green hydrogen adoption is its economic viability compared to conventional fuels and technologies. The cost of extracting green hydrogen must be competitive to attract enough users in industrial applications.
Heavy Cost: No doubt, the cost of production of Green Hydrogen will be very high. One of he major challenging & costly part is to maintain the freezing temperature -254 degree celcius of Green hydrogen.


The National Green Hydrogen Mission holds the promise of transforming India’s energy landscape and positioning the country as a global leader in green hydrogen production and utilization. With a focus on sustainability, energy security, and economic growth, the mission’s successful implementation will pave the way for a cleaner and greener future for India and the world. Embracing green hydrogen technology will not only reduce carbon emissions but also bolster India’s status as a responsible global player in the fight against climate change. By combining robust policy support, technological innovation, and collaborative efforts, India can achieve its ambitious goals and emerge as a prominent player in the global green hydrogen market.

Frequently Asked Questions

Ques -1 : When was National green hydrogen Mission launched?

Ans : The National Green Hydrogen Mission was launched on 15th August 2021.

Ques -2 : Which state in India first implemented green hydrogen policy?

Ans : Maharashtra was the first state in India to implement a green hydrogen policy.

Ques -3 : Who launched the National green hydrogen Mission?

Ans : The National Green Hydrogen Mission was launched by Honourable Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Modi.

Ques -4 : Where is India’s first green hydrogen plant?

Ans : India’s first green hydrogen plant is located at the Jorhat Pump Station in Assam, commissioned by Oil India Limited (OIL) on 20th April 2022, with an installed capacity of 10 kg per day and producing 99.999% pure green hydrogen.

Ques -5 : Which is the first green hydrogen plant in India?

Ans : The first green hydrogen plant in India is located in Assam. Oil India Limited commissioned India’s inaugural 99.999% pure green hydrogen pilot plant at its Jorhat Pump Station on 20th April 2022.

Ques -6 : Where is India’s largest hydrogen plant?

Ans : India’s largest green hydrogen plant is planned to be built by GAIL in the Guna region of Madhya Pradesh by the end of 2023, with a 10MW capacity to produce 4.3 tonnes of green hydrogen per day, supplied to industries through a PEM-based project, mixed with natural gas.

Ques -7 : What is the significance of the National hydrogen Mission UPSC?

Ans : The significance of the National Hydrogen Mission is promoting clean fuel production, reducing reliance on fossil fuel imports, and enabling green hydrogen manufacturers to store renewable energy for up to 30 days.

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